Printer Friendly Page

Discovered: April 24, 2005
Updated: February 13, 2007 12:37:47 PM
Also Known As: Win32.Kebede.{A, B, D} [Computer Associates], Email-Worm.Win32.Kebede.{a, d} [Kaspersky Lab], W32/Generic.{e, m} [McAfee], W32/Kedebe-{A, D} [Sophos], WORM_KEDEBE.{A, D} [Trend Micro]
Type: Worm
Systems Affected: Windows

W32.Kedebe@mm is a mass-mailing worm that ends processes and prevents access to several Web sites, most of which are security-related. It uses its own SMTP engine to send a copy of itself to all email addresses gathered from files with predetermined extensions.

This threat is written in Visual Basic and only works on NT based systems.

Removing entries from the Hosts file
If this threat has modified the Windows Hosts file, there are two ways to remove these entries:

  • Install and run the current version of LiveUpdate. This will remove only the entries that refer to Symantec domains.
  • Manually edit the Hosts file and remove all the entries that the threat added.

To run the current version of LiveUpdate
  1. Click download LiveUpdate.

    If you are not reading this Web page on the computer that is getting the error notice, the address for downloading the file is:


    If necessary, you can type this address into the address bar of the problem computer. Changes to the Hosts file will not stop you from getting to this site.

  2. Save the file to the Windows desktop.
  3. Double-click the lusetup.exe icon on the desktop to install LiveUpdate.
  4. Run LiveUpdate.
  5. Did you see the message "LU1860: LiveUpdate has detected a potential security compromise on your computer"?
    • If you did, let LiveUpdate "Remove these entries from the hosts files" (Recommended).
      This should allow LiveUpdate to run.
    • If you did not, that was not the cause of the problem. Return to the Removal section.

To manually edit the Hosts file and remove all the entries that the worm added

Note: The location of the Hosts file may vary and some computers may not have this file. For example, if the file exists in Windows 98, it will usually be in C:\Windows; and it is located in the C:\WINNT\system32\drivers\etc folder in Windows 2000. There may also be multiple copies of this file in different locations.

Follow the instructions for your operating system:
  • Windows 95/98/Me/NT/2000
    1. Click Start, point to Find or Search, and then click Files or Folders.
    2. Make sure that "Look in" is set to (C:) and that "Include subfolders" is checked.
    3. In the "Named" or "Search for..." box, type:


    4. Click Find Now or Search Now.
    5. For each Hosts file that you find, right-click the file, and then click Open With.
    6. Deselect the "Always use this program to open this program" check box.
    7. Scroll through the list of programs and double-click Notepad.
    8. When the file opens, delete all the entries in Step 8 of the "Technical Details" section.
    9. Close Notepad and save your changes when prompted.

  • Windows XP
    1. Click Start > Search.
    2. Click All files and folders.
    3. In the "All or part of the file name" box, type:


    4. Verify that "Look in" is set to "Local Hard Drives" or to (C:).
    5. Click More advanced options.
    6. Check Search system folders.
    7. Check Search subfolders.
    8. Click Search.
    9. Click Find Now or Search Now.
    10. For each Hosts file that you find, right-click the file, and then click Open With.
    11. Deselect the Always use this program to open this program check box.
    12. Scroll through the list of programs and double-click Notepad.
    13. When the file opens, delete all the entries in Step 8 of the "Technical Details" section.
    14. Close Notepad and save your changes when prompted.

Antivirus Protection Dates

  • Initial Rapid Release version April 24, 2005
  • Latest Rapid Release version November 10, 2017 revision 041
  • Initial Daily Certified version April 24, 2005 revision 002
  • Latest Daily Certified version November 11, 2017 revision 001
  • Initial Weekly Certified release date April 27, 2005

Click here for a more detailed description of Rapid Release and Daily Certified virus definitions.

Writeup By: Robert X Wang

Discovered: April 24, 2005
Updated: February 13, 2007 12:37:47 PM
Also Known As: Win32.Kebede.{A, B, D} [Computer Associates], Email-Worm.Win32.Kebede.{a, d} [Kaspersky Lab], W32/Generic.{e, m} [McAfee], W32/Kedebe-{A, D} [Sophos], WORM_KEDEBE.{A, D} [Trend Micro]
Type: Worm
Systems Affected: Windows

When W32.Kedebe@mm is executed, it performs the following actions:

  1. Copies itself as one the following files. It sets the file attributes to hidden.:

    • %System%\winssc32.exe
    • %System%\mscppdmg.exe
    • %System%\kernel32hlp.exe
    • %System%\NAVctrl.exe
    • %System%\dwrdgr32.exe
    • %System%\gcasctrl.exe
    • %System%\AVmon.exe
    • %System%\winxplt.exe
    • %System%\gcasAV32.exe
    • %System%\LUCOMS~2.EXE
    • %System%\zlbclient.exe

      Note: %System% is a variable that refers to the System folder. By default this is C:\Windows\System (Windows 95/98/Me), C:\Winnt\System32 (Windows NT/2000), or C:\Windows\System32 (Windows XP).

  2. Copies itself to the %System% folder or the %Userprofile%\LOCALS~1\Applic~1\MICROS~1\Windows\ folder using one of the following file names:

    • winssc32.exe
    • mscppdmg.exe
    • kernel32hlp.exe
    • NAVctrl.exe
    • dwrdgr32.exe
    • gcasctrl.exe
    • AVmon.exe
    • winxplt.exe
    • gcasAV32.exe
    • LUCOMS~2.EXE
    • zlbclient.exe

      Note: %UserProfile% is a variable that refers to the current user's profile folder. By default, this is C:\Documents and Settings\<Current User> (Windows NT/2000/XP).

  3. Creates the following mutexes to prevent other risks from running on the compromised computer:

    • _-B_-I_-N_-I_-D_-O_-G_-G_-T_-H_-E_-K_-I_-N_-G_-
    • - --->>>>BaDoom<<<<';;?;;D__MUUUTEX
    • - --->I|t's a g|o|o|d t|h|i|n|g t|o37278;|o|i|n t|h|e|*|*|*|*
    • s|o|c|i|e|t|y!<---
    • MuXxXxTENYKSDesignedAsTheFollowerOfSkynet-D
    • 'D'r'o'p'p'e'd'S'k'y'N'e't'
    • -oOaxX|-+S+-+k+-+y+-+N+-+e+-+t+-|XxKOo-_.
    • [SkyNet.cz]SystemsMutex
    • AdmSkynetJklS003
    • H-E-L-L-B-O-T
    • - -oO]xX|-S-k-y-N-e-t-|Xx[Oo-_
    • ____--->>>>U<<<<--_____

  4. Attempts to delete the following files:

    • %Programfiles%\Microsoft AntiSpyware\GIANTAntiSpywareMain.exe
    • %Programfiles%\Microsoft AntiSpyware\GIANTAntiSpywareUpdater.exe
    • %Programfiles%\Zone Labs\ZoneAlarm\MailFrontier\mantispm.exe
    • %Programfiles%\Zone Labs\ZoneAlarm\MailFrontier\AddinMon.exe
    • %Programfiles%\Zone Labs\ZoneAlarm\zlclient.exe
    • %Programfiles%\Zone Labs\ZoneAlarm\email.zap
    • %Programfiles%\Zone Labs\ZoneAlarm\firewall.zap
    • %Programfiles%\Zone Labs\ZoneAlarm\alert.zap
    • %Programfiles%\Zone Labs\ZoneAlarm\filter.zap
    • %Programfiles%\DAP\DAP.EXE
    • %Programfiles%\Zone Labs\ZoneAlarm\programs.zap
    • %Programfiles%\Norton AntiVirus\OPSCAN.EXE

      Note: %ProgramFiles% is a variable that refers to the program files folder. By default, this is C:\Program Files.

  5. Adds the value:

    "Windows Console Monitor" = "%System%\[path to the worm]"

    to the registry subkey:


    so that the worm runs every time Windows starts.

  6. Adds the value:

    "load" = "%Userprofile%\LOCALS~1\Applic~1\MICROS~1\Windows\[path to the worm]"

    to the registry subkey:

    HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Windows

    so that the worm runs every time Windows starts.

  7. Creates the following registry entries:


  8. Appends the following text into the %System%\drivers\etc\hosts file:

    #WARNING!! Modefing this file WILL cause system instability
    #          Microsoft strongely reommand NOT to modify this
    #          defult values. If you change any entry here, you
    #          CANNOT access the Internet.(more info can be found at
    #          www.msdn.microsoft.com/hostsur~f-ol-ed0504.asp)

    Also adds the following lines to the Hosts file to prevent access to Web sites, most of which are security-related:        symantec.com        www.symantec.com        www.microsoft.com        microsoft.com        windowsupdate.com        securityresponse.symantec.com        yahoo.com        www.yahoo.com        hotmail.com        www.hotmail.com        www.windowsupdate.com        sophos.com        www.sophos.com        mcafee.com        networkassociates.com        downloads-eu1.kaspersky-labs.com        downloads-us1.kaspersky-labs.com        downloads4.kaspersky-labs.com        downloads3.kaspersky-labs.com        downloads2.kaspersky-labs.com        downloads1.kaspersky-labs.com        www.kaspersky.com        download.mcafee.com        updates.symantec.com        kaspersky.com        viruslist.com        liveupdate.symantecliveupdate.com        www.f-secure.com        www.nai.com        nai.com        www.networkassociates.com        zonelabs.com        checkpoint.com        www.zonelabs.com        www.checkpoint.com        download.zonelabs.com        cm2.zonelabs.com        update.zonelabs.com        www.mcafee.com

  9. Creates the following files as infection markers:

    • %System%\win32infchkr.exe
    • %Userprofile%\LOCALS~1\Applic~1\MICROS~1\Windows\Windows Initialization File.ini
    • %Userprofile%\[user name]\Local Settings\Application Data\Microsoft\Windows\sntConfrm.dat

  10. Displays the following fake error message the first time the worm is executed:

    Title: Windows
    Error: 4047
    Invalid procedure call at this time.
    Press OK to terminate.

  11. Gathers email addresses from files with following extensions in all fixed drives:

    • .htm
    • .wab
    • .html
    • .eml
    • .txt
    • .doc
    • .rtf
    • .js
    • .php
    • .abc
    • .dhtm
    • .xhhm
    • .stm
    • .vcf
    • .asp

  12. Copies itself using one of the following names, to folders that contain the string "shar" or "users" in the file path:

    • Naked teen-Actions.com
    • Norton AntiVirus 2006 Crack.exe
    • ZoneAlarm Security Suite 2005 Crack.com
    • Win Server 2003 Remote Exploit.cmd
    • Microsoft AntiSpyware Crack.com
    • DVD to MP3 converter.exe
    • Admini PAssword Cracker.exe

  13. Attempts to download an updated version of itself from the following URLs:

    • [http://]www.geocities.com.com/[REMOVED]/file1.zip
    • [http://]www.geocities.com/[REMOVED]/file2.zip

  14. Uses its own SMTP engine send itself to the email addresses it gathered from the compromised computer. The email has the following characteristics:

    One of the following:

    • Security Team <security@microsoft.com>
    • Internet Explorer Team <iexplorer@microsoft.com>
    • The Jackson Brothers <jacksonfive@micaeljackoon.com>
    • Security Response <securityresponse@symantec.com>

      The worm may also generate email addresses using one of the following names:

    • helen_2002
    • daniel_kull
    • joe_soul
    • semuel_99
    • helina_sexy
    • mail_simon
    • john
    • helen
    • michael

      followed by one of the following domains:

    • @yahoo.com
    • @gmail.com
    • @hotmail.com
    • @msn.com
    • @aol.com
    • @yahoo.co.qk
    • @mail.com
    • @fastmail.fm

      One of the following:

    • Mail server upgrading info.
    • Attention! Your Internet account has been...
    • Don't send this to me again!
    • I'm still waiting for your reply...
    • Attention!
    • Internet Explorer 7.0 on the row!!
    • Urgent! Symantec Security Response.
    • I have received your mail.
    • Sign a petition for Micael Jackson

      One of the following:

    • Hey, why did you send this to me? I'm not going to talk to you again. You know I don't like such kinda pics. I have painted a reply on it. I have also covered the nasty parts with dark color. Anyway check it outit is all in the attachment. Please don't send this kind of pictures to me.


    • Hi, how are you? I'm fine. Why didn't you reply to me? I'm still waiting...by the way I have sent you my recent picture with the close that like most on. Please reply to me, I'm still waiting for you. I willsend you another picture next time you reply, OK.


    • Hi,

      I don't think you know me. But one thing is happening to me. It's your mail appearing in my inbox. I am pissed off right now.

    • I think it is business related mail, but I don't have the habit to read someone else's mail. So I have downloaded put it in the attachment. So, I want you to do something. Either change your email or change your SMTP server, in that way I may get rest and you may get your mail. But if you don't, I'm not going to send you the message rather I am going to put it to spam. Please be fast, it's making my mail box out of space.

      Thanks in advance.

    • D$$r 0!stomer!$$`(05!`&(%00!Q!4$`]P5!``8&00 '!D$`I`9!`+T&00#C!D$`MXP9!`.,&00!!T$`1P=!`','00!S!T$}

      If you can't read the above message, then your E-Mail Server is not capable of decrypting secured E-Mails. Consult the attached secured file for the same message content.

      Microsoft Windows Security Agent. All Rights Reserved

    • Microsoft Internet Explorer 7.0 Beta has been ready for download from the Microsoft Web site. How to downloadand about the 'Genuine Microsoft' product  information consult the attached file. Download mirrors are also included.

      Microsoft Internet Explorer Team.

    • Dear customer,

      We have been working hard to prevent you from computer Viruses, Trojans and Internet Worms. But we have found a new and different computer Virus spreading through the Internet, which cannot be detect by any AnitVirus softwares other than Norton. This Worm has been on the Internet since last month. Considering this, Symantec has prepared a zipped 'Patch' that works for all AntiVirus softwares including, Sophos and McAfee. Symantc strongly recommand you to download and install this patch. But if your computer is already infected then this patch will not work. Furthermore, it is hard to remove the Virus after being infected. Do not wait untill your computer gets infected.

      NOTE: This is a freeware. You can share with any of your relatives.

      Symantec Security Response Team. All Rights Reserved.

    • Dear user,

      This is to inform you that we are planning to clean the server (http://[random URL]) for Viruses. During this time the server may be closed. So we have created a temporary mail account for you on a temporary server. In this case, your current ID, will be used but you'll need to log in on another server. How to perform this task, the temporary mail server address and your temporary mail ID is in the attached file. Follow the clearly organised steps in the attachment to log on to our temporary mail server. Be careful! This server is going to be closed in three days as you might not get this file until we upgrade this server.

      If you encounter any problem during the process, please contact: [random email address]

      Sorry for the inconveniences you encounted.

    • Hi,

      As you knowMichael is innocent. And if you believe he is innocent please sign the petition and e-mail us.
      Please, it won't take a minute. Name of people who have signed and the electronic form is in the attachment. If you
      do no agree that he is innocent, please fill in the form and let us know what your attitude is.
      Thank you in advance!

      The  Michael Jackson Commite 2005 .

      The Attachment is a .cab file with an embedded .exe or .com file. The file name is one of the following:

    • MyPicture
    • replied
    • BinaryFormat
    • MicrosoftIE7.0Documentation
    • Patch
    • YourMail
    • TempAccountInfo
    • NeedHelp

  15. Attempts to end the following processes:

    • ZONALM2601.EXE
    • avserve2.exe
    • ESCANH95.EXE
    • gcasServ.exe
    • gcasDtServ.exe
    • zlclient.exe
    • LUCOMS~1.EXE
    • SNDSrvc.exe
    • SPBBCSvc.exe
    • PENIS32.EXE
    • SNDSrvc
    • DAP.EXE
    • mantispm.exe
    • OPScan.exe
    • gcasServAlert.exe
    • ASFAgent.exe
    • vsmon.exe
    • isafe.exe
    • GIANTAntiSpywareMain.exe
    • GIANTAntiSpywareUpdater.exe
    • LXER32.VAV
    • MSSMMC32.EXE
    • LLSSev.exe
    • Rtvscan.exe
    • ZONALM2601
    • Rtvscan.exe
    • LLSSev.exe
    • SPYXX
    • isafe
    • avserve2
    • NETMON
    • mantispm
    • LUCOMS~1
    • LUALL
    • gcasServ
    • gcasDtServ
    • CCAPP
    • zlclient
    • SPBBCSvc
    • PENIS32
    • DAP
    • OPScan
    • gcasServAlert
    • ASFAgent
    • vsmon
    • GIANTAntiSpywareMain
    • RESCUE
    • GIANTAntiSpywareUpdater
    • NMAIN
    • MSSMMC32
    • CLEAN


Symantec Security Response encourages all users and administrators to adhere to the following basic security "best practices":

  • Use a firewall to block all incoming connections from the Internet to services that should not be publicly available. By default, you should deny all incoming connections and only allow services you explicitly want to offer to the outside world.
  • Enforce a password policy. Complex passwords make it difficult to crack password files on compromised computers. This helps to prevent or limit damage when a computer is compromised.
  • Ensure that programs and users of the computer use the lowest level of privileges necessary to complete a task. When prompted for a root or UAC password, ensure that the program asking for administration-level access is a legitimate application.
  • Disable AutoPlay to prevent the automatic launching of executable files on network and removable drives, and disconnect the drives when not required. If write access is not required, enable read-only mode if the option is available.
  • Turn off file sharing if not needed. If file sharing is required, use ACLs and password protection to limit access. Disable anonymous access to shared folders. Grant access only to user accounts with strong passwords to folders that must be shared.
  • Turn off and remove unnecessary services. By default, many operating systems install auxiliary services that are not critical. These services are avenues of attack. If they are removed, threats have less avenues of attack.
  • If a threat exploits one or more network services, disable, or block access to, those services until a patch is applied.
  • Always keep your patch levels up-to-date, especially on computers that host public services and are accessible through the firewall, such as HTTP, FTP, mail, and DNS services.
  • Configure your email server to block or remove email that contains file attachments that are commonly used to spread threats, such as .vbs, .bat, .exe, .pif and .scr files.
  • Isolate compromised computers quickly to prevent threats from spreading further. Perform a forensic analysis and restore the computers using trusted media.
  • Train employees not to open attachments unless they are expecting them. Also, do not execute software that is downloaded from the Internet unless it has been scanned for viruses. Simply visiting a compromised Web site can cause infection if certain browser vulnerabilities are not patched.
  • If Bluetooth is not required for mobile devices, it should be turned off. If you require its use, ensure that the device's visibility is set to "Hidden" so that it cannot be scanned by other Bluetooth devices. If device pairing must be used, ensure that all devices are set to "Unauthorized", requiring authorization for each connection request. Do not accept applications that are unsigned or sent from unknown sources.
  • For further information on the terms used in this document, please refer to the Security Response glossary.

Writeup By: Robert X Wang

Discovered: April 24, 2005
Updated: February 13, 2007 12:37:47 PM
Also Known As: Win32.Kebede.{A, B, D} [Computer Associates], Email-Worm.Win32.Kebede.{a, d} [Kaspersky Lab], W32/Generic.{e, m} [McAfee], W32/Kedebe-{A, D} [Sophos], WORM_KEDEBE.{A, D} [Trend Micro]
Type: Worm
Systems Affected: Windows

The following instructions pertain to all current and recent Symantec antivirus products, including the Symantec AntiVirus and Norton AntiVirus product lines.

  1. Disable System Restore (Windows Me/XP).
  2. Reinstall your Symantec antivirus program.
  3. Update the virus definitions.
  4. Run a full system scan and delete all the files detected as W32.Kedebe@mm.
  5. Delete the value that was added to the registry.
For specific details on each of these steps, read the following instructions.

1. To disable System Restore (Windows Me/XP)
If you are running Windows Me or Windows XP, we recommend that you temporarily turn off System Restore. Windows Me/XP uses this feature, which is enabled by default, to restore the files on your computer in case they become damaged. If a virus, worm, or Trojan infects a computer, System Restore may back up the virus, worm, or Trojan on the computer.

Windows prevents outside programs, including antivirus programs, from modifying System Restore. Therefore, antivirus programs or tools cannot remove threats in the System Restore folder. As a result, System Restore has the potential of restoring an infected file on your computer, even after you have cleaned the infected files from all the other locations.

Also, a virus scan may detect a threat in the System Restore folder even though you have removed the threat.

For instructions on how to turn off System Restore, read your Windows documentation, or one of the following articles:
When you are completely finished with the removal procedure and are satisfied that the threat has been removed, reenable System Restore by following the instructions in the aforementioned documents.

For additional information, and an alternative to disabling Windows Me System Restore, see the Microsoft Knowledge Base article: Antivirus Tools Cannot Clean Infected Files in the _Restore Folder (Article ID: Q263455).

2. To reinstall your Symantec antivirus program
As this virus attempts to remove the files and registry subkeys that your Symantec antivirus program uses, you may need to reinstall the program.
If your Symantec antivirus program is not working properly, uninstall, and then reinstall it.

3. To update the virus definitions
Symantec Security Response fully tests all the virus definitions for quality assurance before they are posted to our servers. There are two ways to obtain the most recent virus definitions:
  • Running LiveUpdate, which is the easiest way to obtain virus definitions: These virus definitions are posted to the LiveUpdate servers once each week (usually on Wednesdays), unless there is a major virus outbreak. To determine whether definitions for this threat are available by LiveUpdate, refer to the document: Virus Definitions (LiveUpdate).
  • Downloading the definitions using the Intelligent Updater: The Intelligent Updater virus definitions are posted daily. You should download the definitions from the Symantec Security Response Web site and manually install them. To determine whether definitions for this threat are available by the Intelligent Updater, refer to the document: Virus Definitions (Intelligent Updater).

    The latest Intelligent Updater virus definitions can be obtained here: Intelligent Updater virus definitions. For detailed instructions read the document: How to update virus definition files using the Intelligent Updater.

    Note: If you see an error, such as LU1418, when you try to run LiveUpdate and you cannot get the Web site hosting the Intelligent Updater, it is likely that the W32.Kedebe@mm has modified the Hosts file. You can either download and install LiveUpdate 2.5, which can remove Symantec entries from that file, or you can edit it yourself. See the instructions for both in the "Additional Information" section below.

4. To scan for and delete the infected files
  1. Start your Symantec antivirus program and make sure that it is configured to scan all the files.
  2. Run a full system scan.
  3. If any files are detected as infected with W32.Kedebe@mm, click Delete.

    If your Symantec antivirus product reports that it cannot delete an infected file, Windows may be using the file. To fix this, run the scan in Safe mode. For instructions, read the document: How to start the computer in Safe Mode. Once you have restarted in Safe mode, run the scan again.

    After the files are deleted, restart the computer in Normal mode and proceed with section 5.

    Warning messages may be displayed when the computer is restarted, as the threat has not been fully removed at this point. Please ignore these messages and just click OK. These messages will not appear when the computer is restarted after the removal instructions have been fully completed. The messages displayed may be similar to the following:

    Title: [File path]
    Message body: Windows cannot find [file name]. Make sure you typed the name correctly, and then try again. To search for a file, click the Start button, and then click Search.

5. To delete the value from the registry
Important: Symantec strongly recommends that you back up the registry before making any changes to it. Incorrect changes to the registry can result in permanent data loss or corrupted files. Modify the specified subkeys only. For instructions refer to the document: How to make a backup of the Windows registry.

  1. Click Start > Run.

  2. Type regedit

  3. Click OK.

  4. Navigate to the subkey:


  5. In the right pane, delete the value:

    "Windows Console Monitor" = "%System%\[path to the worm]"

  6. Navigate to the subkey:

    HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Windows

  7. In the right pane, delete the value:

    "load" = "%Userprofile%\LOCALS~1\Applic~1\MICROS~1\Windows\[path to the worm]"

  8. Navigate to and delete the registy key:


  9. Exit the Registry Editor.

Writeup By: Robert X Wang