Trojan.Flush.K

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Discovered: January 18, 2007
Updated: January 18, 2007 6:05:41 PM
Also Known As: Trojan.Dnschanger [Symantec]
Type: Trojan, Virus
Infection Length: 121,376 bytes
Systems Affected: Windows

Trojan.Flush.K is a Trojan horse that modifies the DNS server settings on the compromised computer and redirects the browser to potentially malicious Web sites.

Note: Virus definitions dated prior to January 19, 2007 may detect this threat as Trojan.Dnschanger.

Antivirus Protection Dates

  • Initial Rapid Release version January 18, 2007
  • Latest Rapid Release version November 04, 2019 revision 019
  • Initial Daily Certified version January 18, 2007
  • Latest Daily Certified version November 04, 2019 revision 065
  • Initial Weekly Certified release date January 22, 2007

Click here for a more detailed description of Rapid Release and Daily Certified virus definitions.


Technical Description

This threat has been renamed from Trojan.Dnschanger to Trojan.Flush.K.

Trojan.Flush.K is a Trojan horse that modifies the DNS server settings on the compromised computer and redirects the browser to potentially malicious Web sites.

When the Trojan is executed, it creates the following folders:

  • %ProgramFiles%\DirectVideo
  • %UserProfile%\Start Menu\Programs\DirectVideo

The Trojan then creates the following files:
  • %UserProfile%\Local Settings\Temp\svchost.exe
  • %UserProfile%\Local Settings\Temp\step1.exe
  • %UserProfile%\Local Settings\Temp\step2.exe
  • %System%\kd???.exe
  • %ProgramFiles%\DirectVideo\Uninstall.exe
  • %UserProfile%\Start Menu\Programs\DirectVideo\Uninstall.lnk

The Trojan hides the following files using a user mode rootkit:
  • %System%\kd???.exe
  • %UserProfile%\Local Settings\Temp\step2.exe

Next, the Trojan creates the following registry entry, which is protected against removal or modification, and ensures that it executes whenever Windows starts:
%HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE%\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon\"System" = "kd???.exe"

The Trojan also creates the following registry subkeys:
%HKEY_ALL_USERS%\Software\DirectVideo
%HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT%\DirectVideo
%HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT%\DirectVideo\CLSID
%HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE%\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Uninstall\DirectVideo

The Trojan then creates the following registry entries:
HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT\DirectVideo\CLSID\"Default" = "{6BF52A52-394A-11D3-B153-00C04F79FAA6}"
HKEY_ALL_USERS\Software\DirectVideo\"Default" = "%ProgramFiles%\DirectVideo"
HKEY_ALL_USERS\Software\DirectVideo\"Start Menu Folder" = "DirectVideo"
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Uninstall\DirectVideo\"DisplayIcon" = "%ProgramFiles%\DirectVideo\Uninstall,0"
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Uninstall\DirectVideo\"DisplayName" = "DirectVideo"
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Uninstall\DirectVideo\"InstallLocation" = "%ProgramFiles%\DirectVideo"
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Uninstall\DirectVideo\"NoModify" = "0x00000001"
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Uninstall\DirectVideo\"NoRepair" = "0x00000001"
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Uninstall\DirectVideo\"UninstallString" = "%ProgramFiles%\DirectVideo\Uninstall.exe"
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Parameters\Interfaces\[RANDOM CLSID]\"DhcpNameServer" = "85.255.115.21,85.255.112.91"
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Parameters\Interfaces\[RANDOM CLSID]\"NameServer" = "85.255.115.21,85.255.112.91"

Next, the Trojan checks for the presence of the following file:
%UserProfile%\Application Data\Microsoft\Network\Connections\Pbk\rasphone.pbk

If the above file exists, the Trojan then creates the following registry entries:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Parameters\Interfaces\[RANDOM CLSID]\"DhcpNameServer" = "85.255.115.21,85.255.112.91"
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Parameters\Interfaces\[RANDOM CLSID]\"NameServer" = "85.255.115.21,85.255.112.91"

Next, the Trojan executes the following Windows commands to update the changes made to the configuration of the compromised computer:
  • ipconfig.exe/flushdns
  • ipconfig.exe/registerdns
  • ipconfig.exe/dnsflush
  • ipconfig.exe/renew
  • ipconfig.exe/renew_all

Recommendations

Symantec Security Response encourages all users and administrators to adhere to the following basic security "best practices":

  • Use a firewall to block all incoming connections from the Internet to services that should not be publicly available. By default, you should deny all incoming connections and only allow services you explicitly want to offer to the outside world.
  • Enforce a password policy. Complex passwords make it difficult to crack password files on compromised computers. This helps to prevent or limit damage when a computer is compromised.
  • Ensure that programs and users of the computer use the lowest level of privileges necessary to complete a task. When prompted for a root or UAC password, ensure that the program asking for administration-level access is a legitimate application.
  • Disable AutoPlay to prevent the automatic launching of executable files on network and removable drives, and disconnect the drives when not required. If write access is not required, enable read-only mode if the option is available.
  • Turn off file sharing if not needed. If file sharing is required, use ACLs and password protection to limit access. Disable anonymous access to shared folders. Grant access only to user accounts with strong passwords to folders that must be shared.
  • Turn off and remove unnecessary services. By default, many operating systems install auxiliary services that are not critical. These services are avenues of attack. If they are removed, threats have less avenues of attack.
  • If a threat exploits one or more network services, disable, or block access to, those services until a patch is applied.
  • Always keep your patch levels up-to-date, especially on computers that host public services and are accessible through the firewall, such as HTTP, FTP, mail, and DNS services.
  • Configure your email server to block or remove email that contains file attachments that are commonly used to spread threats, such as .vbs, .bat, .exe, .pif and .scr files.
  • Isolate compromised computers quickly to prevent threats from spreading further. Perform a forensic analysis and restore the computers using trusted media.
  • Train employees not to open attachments unless they are expecting them. Also, do not execute software that is downloaded from the Internet unless it has been scanned for viruses. Simply visiting a compromised Web site can cause infection if certain browser vulnerabilities are not patched.
  • If Bluetooth is not required for mobile devices, it should be turned off. If you require its use, ensure that the device's visibility is set to "Hidden" so that it cannot be scanned by other Bluetooth devices. If device pairing must be used, ensure that all devices are set to "Unauthorized", requiring authorization for each connection request. Do not accept applications that are unsigned or sent from unknown sources.
  • For further information on the terms used in this document, please refer to the Security Response glossary.


Removal

The following instructions pertain to all current and recent Symantec antivirus products, including the Symantec AntiVirus and Norton AntiVirus product lines.

  1. Disable System Restore (Windows Me/XP).
  2. Update the virus definitions.
  3. Run a full system scan.
  4. Delete any values added to the registry.
  5. Delete the entries added to the RAS phonebook file.

For specific details on each of these steps, read the following instructions.

1. To disable System Restore (Windows Me/XP)
If you are running Windows Me or Windows XP, we recommend that you temporarily turn off System Restore. Windows Me/XP uses this feature, which is enabled by default, to restore the files on your computer in case they become damaged. If a virus, worm, or Trojan infects a computer, System Restore may back up the virus, worm, or Trojan on the computer.

Windows prevents outside programs, including antivirus programs, from modifying System Restore. Therefore, antivirus programs or tools cannot remove threats in the System Restore folder. As a result, System Restore has the potential of restoring an infected file on your computer, even after you have cleaned the infected files from all the other locations.

Also, a virus scan may detect a threat in the System Restore folder even though you have removed the threat.

For instructions on how to turn off System Restore, read your Windows documentation, or one of the following articles:

Note: When you are completely finished with the removal procedure and are satisfied that the threat has been removed, reenable System Restore by following the instructions in the aforementioned documents.

For additional information, and an alternative to disabling Windows Me System Restore, see the Microsoft Knowledge Base article: Antivirus Tools Cannot Clean Infected Files in the _Restore Folder (Article ID: Q263455).

2. To update the virus definitions
Symantec Security Response fully tests all the virus definitions for quality assurance before they are posted to our servers. There are two ways to obtain the most recent virus definitions:
  • Running LiveUpdate, which is the easiest way to obtain virus definitions.
  • Downloading the definitions using the Intelligent Updater: The Intelligent Updater virus definitions are posted daily. You should download the definitions from the Symantec Security Response Web site and manually install them. To determine whether definitions for this threat are available by the Intelligent Updater, refer to Virus Definitions (Intelligent Updater).

The latest Intelligent Updater virus definitions can be obtained here: Intelligent Updater virus definitions . For detailed instructions read the document: How to update virus definition files using the Intelligent Updater .

3. To run a full system scan
  1. Start your Symantec antivirus program and make sure that it is configured to scan all the files.
  2. Run a full system scan.
  3. If any files are detected, follow the instructions displayed by your antivirus program.
Important: If you are unable to start your Symantec antivirus product or the product reports that it cannot delete a detected file, you may need to stop the risk from running in order to remove it. To do this, run the scan in Safe mode. For instructions, read the document, How to start the computer in Safe Mode . Once you have restarted in Safe mode, run the scan again.


After the files are deleted, restart the computer in Normal mode and proceed with the next section.

Warning messages may be displayed when the computer is restarted, since the threat may not be fully removed at this point. You can ignore these messages and click OK. These messages will not appear when the computer is restarted after the removal instructions have been fully completed. The messages displayed may be similar to the following:

Title: [FILE PATH]
Message body: Windows cannot find [FILE NAME]. Make sure you typed the name correctly, and then try again. To search for a file, click the Start button, and then click Search.

4. To delete the value from the registry
Important: Symantec strongly recommends that you back up the registry before making any changes to it. Incorrect changes to the registry can result in permanent data loss or corrupted files. Modify the specified subkeys only. For instructions refer to the document: How to make a backup of the Windows registry .
  1. Click Start > Run.
  2. Type regedit
  3. Click OK.

    Note: If the registry editor fails to open the threat may have modified the registry to prevent access to the registry editor. Security Response has developed a tool to resolve this problem. Download and run this tool, and then continue with the removal.

  4. Navigate to and delete the following entry:

    HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon\"System" = "kd???.exe"

  5. Navigate to and delete the following subkeys:

    HKEY_ALL_USERS\Software\DirectVideo
    HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT\DirectVideo
    HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT\DirectVideo\CLSID
    HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Uninstall\DirectVideo


  6. Navigate to the following subkey:

    HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Parameters\Interfaces
    \[ADAPTER CLSID]

  7. In the right pane, delete the following values:

    "NameServer" = "85.255.115.21,85.255.112.91"
    "DhcpNameServer" = "85.255.115.21,85.255.112.91"

    Note: To restore your DNS settings, please consult your ISP or network administrator.

  8. Exit the Registry Editor.
5. To delete the entries added to the RAS phonebook file

Note: The location of the RAS phonebook file, rasphone.pbk, may vary and some computers may not have this file.

For example, if the file exists in Windows XP, it is usually located in the C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Application Data\Microsoft\Network\Connections\Pbk folder.

Follow the instructions for your operating system:

Windows 95/98/Me/NT/2000
  1. Click Start, point to Find or Search, and then click Files or Folders.

  2. Make sure that "Look in" is set to (C:) and that "Include subfolders" is checked.

  3. In the "Named" or "Search for..." box, type:

    rasphone.pbk

  4. Click Find Now or Search Now.

  5. If you find rasphone.pbk, right-click the file, and then click Open With.

  6. Deselect the Always use this program to open this program check box.

  7. Scroll through the list of programs and double-click Notepad.

  8. When the file opens, delete all the lines that are included in the section:

    IpDnsAddress = 85.255.115.21
    IpDns2Address = 85.255.112.91
    IpNameAssign = 2

  9. Close Notepad and save your changes when prompted.
Windows XP
  1. Click Start, and then click Search.

  2. Click All files and folders.

  3. In the "All or part of the file name" box, type:

    rasphone.pbk

  4. Verify that "Look in" is set to "Local Hard Drives" or to (C:).

  5. Click More advanced options.

  6. Check Search system folders.

  7. Check Search subfolders.

  8. Click Search.

  9. If you find rasphone.pbk file, right-click the file, and then click Open With.

  10. Deselect the Always use this program to open this program check box.

  11. Scroll through the list of programs and double-click Notepad.

  12. When the file opens, delete all the lines that are included in the sections:

    IpDnsAddress = 85.255.115.21
    IpDns2Address = 85.255.112.91
    IpNameAssign = 2

  13. Close Notepad and save your changes when prompted.

Writeup By: Diarmaid Roche