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Discovered: December 12, 2011
Updated: December 13, 2011 6:23:04 AM
Also Known As: Android.Premiumtext [Symantec], ANDROIDOS_RUFRAUD.A [Trend]
Type: Trojan
Systems Affected: Android

Android.Rufraud is a Trojan horse for Android devices that sends SMS messages to premium-rate phone numbers.

Note: Virus definitions dated December 12, 2011 or earlier may detect this threat as Android.Premiumtext .

Antivirus Protection Dates

  • Initial Rapid Release version December 12, 2011 revision 039
  • Latest Rapid Release version February 19, 2013 revision 016
  • Initial Daily Certified version December 13, 2011 revision 002
  • Latest Daily Certified version December 14, 2011 revision 034
  • Initial Weekly Certified release date December 14, 2011

Click here for a more detailed description of Rapid Release and Daily Certified virus definitions.

Technical Description

When the Trojan is installed, it will display the following message on the device:
Where is My Water?
To continue, click below

When the Trojan is being installed, it requests permissions to perform the following actions:

  • Open network connections.
  • Create new SMS messages.
  • Read SMS messages on the device.
  • Send SMS messages.
  • Monitor incoming SMS messages.
  • Write to external storage devices.
  • Read external storage devices.


If a user presses Next on the screen the Trojan displays, it will send a premium-rate SMS message. The number that the SMS message is sent to depends on the country where the SIM card is registered. If the country is one of the following, it may send an SMS to the accompanying premium-rate numbers:
  • Azerbaijan - 9014
  • Armenia - 1121
  • Belarus - 7781
  • Czech Republic - 90901599
  • Estonia - 17013
  • France - 81185
  • Georgia - 8014
  • Germany - 80888
  • Israel - 4545
  • Kazakhstan - 7790
  • Kyrgyzstan - 4157
  • Latvia - 1874
  • Lithuania - 1645
  • Russia - 7781
  • Poland - 92525
  • Tajikistan - 1171
  • Ukraine - 7540
  • United Kingdom - 79067

The Trojan will also hide any messages received from the numbers above.


Symantec Security Response encourages all users and administrators to adhere to the following basic security "best practices":

  • Use a firewall to block all incoming connections from the Internet to services that should not be publicly available. By default, you should deny all incoming connections and only allow services you explicitly want to offer to the outside world.
  • Enforce a password policy. Complex passwords make it difficult to crack password files on compromised computers. This helps to prevent or limit damage when a computer is compromised.
  • Ensure that programs and users of the computer use the lowest level of privileges necessary to complete a task. When prompted for a root or UAC password, ensure that the program asking for administration-level access is a legitimate application.
  • Disable AutoPlay to prevent the automatic launching of executable files on network and removable drives, and disconnect the drives when not required. If write access is not required, enable read-only mode if the option is available.
  • Turn off file sharing if not needed. If file sharing is required, use ACLs and password protection to limit access. Disable anonymous access to shared folders. Grant access only to user accounts with strong passwords to folders that must be shared.
  • Turn off and remove unnecessary services. By default, many operating systems install auxiliary services that are not critical. These services are avenues of attack. If they are removed, threats have less avenues of attack.
  • If a threat exploits one or more network services, disable, or block access to, those services until a patch is applied.
  • Always keep your patch levels up-to-date, especially on computers that host public services and are accessible through the firewall, such as HTTP, FTP, mail, and DNS services.
  • Configure your email server to block or remove email that contains file attachments that are commonly used to spread threats, such as .vbs, .bat, .exe, .pif and .scr files.
  • Isolate compromised computers quickly to prevent threats from spreading further. Perform a forensic analysis and restore the computers using trusted media.
  • Train employees not to open attachments unless they are expecting them. Also, do not execute software that is downloaded from the Internet unless it has been scanned for viruses. Simply visiting a compromised Web site can cause infection if certain browser vulnerabilities are not patched.
  • If Bluetooth is not required for mobile devices, it should be turned off. If you require its use, ensure that the device's visibility is set to "Hidden" so that it cannot be scanned by other Bluetooth devices. If device pairing must be used, ensure that all devices are set to "Unauthorized", requiring authorization for each connection request. Do not accept applications that are unsigned or sent from unknown sources.
  • For further information on the terms used in this document, please refer to the Security Response glossary.


You may have arrived at this page either because you have been alerted by your Symantec product about this risk, or you are concerned that your device has been affected by this risk.

Install Norton Mobile Security
If you do not already have Norton Mobile Security installed on your device, please download the product from the Android marketplace .

Alternatively, you can navigate to the website from your device and download the product from there by completing the following steps:

  1. Select the 90-Day free download.
  2. Click on the Android icon to begin downloading the product.
  3. Click on Install in order to accept the permissions that are being requested by the program.
  4. Next, click Open and then Agree & Launch.

Note: The first time the product runs, you will be required to enter a code that is displayed on the screen in order to activate the product. Enter the provided code and press Submit .

Run a full system scan
Run a full system scan using Norton Mobile Security to remove this risk from the device. To do this, please perform the following actions:
  1. Navigate to the Anti-Malware tab.
  2. Click Scan Now.

Manual removal
To remove this risk manually, please perform the following actions:
  1. Open the Google Android Menu.
  2. Go to the Settings icon and select Applications.
  3. Next, click Manage.
  4. Select the application and click the Uninstall button.

Writeup By: Xiao Jun Xie