1. Symantec/
  2. Security Response/
  3. W32.Spyrat


Risk Level 1: Very Low

January 12, 2010
April 19, 2013 2:57:45 PM
Also Known As:
W32/Rebhip-AR [Sophos]
Infection Length:
290,304 bytes
Systems Affected:
Note: This worm is generated by the Spy-Net RAT toolkit, and as a result the files and registry entries can be determined by the attacker. The files, registry entries, processes, and mutexes listed below are default values presented by the toolkit.

When the worm is executed, it creates the following files:
  • %Temp%\UuU.uUu
  • %Temp%\XX--XX--XX.txt
  • %Temp%\XxX.xXx
  • C:\Dir\install\server.exe

It then creates the following registry entry, so that it starts when Windows starts:
HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\Explorer\Run\"Policies" = "c:\dir\install\server.exe"

The worm then opens a back door using a predetermined port and IP address, allowing an attacker to perform the following actions on the compromised computer:
  • Read, write, and execute files
  • Steal stored passwords
  • Issue commands
  • Activate and view a webcam, if present
  • Log keystrokes
  • Create a HTTP proxy to route traffic through the compromised computer

The worm may also create a rootkit that hides any registry entries or files that begin with the "SPY_NET_RAT" string.

The threat may also inject itself into the iexplorer.exe process, or another predetermined process, so that it starts when the process starts.

It also creates a mutex named ***MUTEX*** (or another value determined by the attacker) to prevent multiple instances of the threat from running.

The worm spreads by copying itself to removable drives and the share folders of file-sharing programs, such as Limewire and Bearshare.


Symantec Security Response encourages all users and administrators to adhere to the following basic security "best practices":

  • Use a firewall to block all incoming connections from the Internet to services that should not be publicly available. By default, you should deny all incoming connections and only allow services you explicitly want to offer to the outside world.
  • Enforce a password policy. Complex passwords make it difficult to crack password files on compromised computers. This helps to prevent or limit damage when a computer is compromised.
  • Ensure that programs and users of the computer use the lowest level of privileges necessary to complete a task. When prompted for a root or UAC password, ensure that the program asking for administration-level access is a legitimate application.
  • Disable AutoPlay to prevent the automatic launching of executable files on network and removable drives, and disconnect the drives when not required. If write access is not required, enable read-only mode if the option is available.
  • Turn off file sharing if not needed. If file sharing is required, use ACLs and password protection to limit access. Disable anonymous access to shared folders. Grant access only to user accounts with strong passwords to folders that must be shared.
  • Turn off and remove unnecessary services. By default, many operating systems install auxiliary services that are not critical. These services are avenues of attack. If they are removed, threats have less avenues of attack.
  • If a threat exploits one or more network services, disable, or block access to, those services until a patch is applied.
  • Always keep your patch levels up-to-date, especially on computers that host public services and are accessible through the firewall, such as HTTP, FTP, mail, and DNS services.
  • Configure your email server to block or remove email that contains file attachments that are commonly used to spread threats, such as .vbs, .bat, .exe, .pif and .scr files.
  • Isolate compromised computers quickly to prevent threats from spreading further. Perform a forensic analysis and restore the computers using trusted media.
  • Train employees not to open attachments unless they are expecting them. Also, do not execute software that is downloaded from the Internet unless it has been scanned for viruses. Simply visiting a compromised Web site can cause infection if certain browser vulnerabilities are not patched.
  • If Bluetooth is not required for mobile devices, it should be turned off. If you require its use, ensure that the device's visibility is set to "Hidden" so that it cannot be scanned by other Bluetooth devices. If device pairing must be used, ensure that all devices are set to "Unauthorized", requiring authorization for each connection request. Do not accept applications that are unsigned or sent from unknown sources.
  • For further information on the terms used in this document, please refer to the Security Response glossary.
Writeup By: Gavin O'Gorman
Summary| Technical Details| Removal

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